Techniques involving an anterior approach to the abdominal wall were the first to be used, and are generally also considered the most invasive, requiring an extensive dissection of the panniculus adiposus to expose the anterior surfaces of the rectus muscles and to suture the muscles together on the anterior plane. Surgical drains are positioned during this type of procedure, and left in place for a variable period of time following surgery. A mesh reinforcement is positioned over the repair and may be very close to the skin in some cases. This type of abdominal wall repair can be performed via a wide bispinoiliac incision as part of an abdominoplasty procedure, or via small incisions using an endoscopic approach, as has recently been proposed. This latter technique, however, does not eliminate the need for surgical drains, extended dissection or positioning of a mesh, albeit on a relatively superficial plane.